It is considered that gymnastics originated in ancient Egypt, when performing circus stunts.Born in Central Europe in the mid-eighteenth century with the name of modern gymnastics.
In 1776, the first modern gym teacher was Johann Friedrich Simon, Basedow's school in the German city of Dessau.
In 1806 in Spain, the first official center which was performed at the Royal Institute Pestalozzi founded by Amoros in Madrid.
In 1811, the educator Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, the father of modern gymnastics, founded in Berlin, the Turnverein, a gymnastic club.
In 1888, gymnastics was taking root in some schools and founded the Amateur Gymnastics Association.
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Gymnastics is a sport where running physical exercise sequences require strength, flexibility and agility. Can be carried out competitively or recreationally.Etymology Fitness comes from the Greek
gymnastike, of Gymnastikos"Fond of athletic exercises" of gymnastics, "exercise" derived from gymnos, "naked" because the athletes trained and competed naked.
Former Gymnastics History:
The fitness carries a long history marked by glorious deeds. We found vestiges of the sport in Greece, which was among the disciplines of Games of Antiquity.Different gymnastic exercises were developed in ancient Greece as part a system of verification that conditioned and military training. These training programs were integral to the educational programs for children as is believed to facilitate the unity of mind and body. The history of gymnastics can be traced to ancient Greece. Gymnastics gymnazein the origin of the word, which means exercising without clothes.When the gym first appeared in ancient Greece, more than 2000 years, the gym was the home of any cultural activity. The men were brought together not only to practice a sport, but to devote himself to art,music and philosophy.
For the Greeks, the joint practice of physical activity and was the key intellectual harmony between body and spirit.The Greeks were not the only people of antiquity practiced gymnastics.Rome, China, Persia and India used the gym as a training method to prepare young people for the military.Gymnastics is a sport that harmonizes body movement to the lilting tunes of choreographed ma.In fact, the gym can be compared to an art form. The gymnastics events test the strength, rhythm,balance, flexibility and agility of a gymnast.The history of gymnastics hasseen many a popular gymnast who has mesmerized the world with impressive performances.The Romans of the Republic enthusiastically devoted to walking, riding and other gymnastic exercises.Not infrequently, after violent exercise thrown into the Tiber as the Spartans the Eurotas.Plutarch reports that Caesar got cured neuralgia amassed a slave making your muscles.With However, the Romans practiced gymnastics never true, the Athlete.Only Greece took the exercises in circuses,adapting to the harsh character Greek and transforming exercises in the gladiatorial games Greek athletes.
Gymnastics History in the Middle Ages:
The Middle Ages knew no gymnastics.The name itself derives from the sport Greek word "gymnos" which means naked. In the Olympics of antiquity,gymnasts performed their exhibits naked.This is probably the reason that the early Christians would argue that the gym was "the shrine to Satan" the approach to the human body.However, the decline of this sport originated economic corruption. In the year 393 AD, the Roman emperor Theodosius I banned the Olympics and gymnastics,because I thought I had seen impregnated with a growing immorality. Although probably continued in private practice, gymnastics did not return to a public stage until the sixteenth century. When he reappeared, it was under the guise of a popular street theater.The writers most important of the time failed to recognize the physical and spiritual benefit of the gymnastic activity. Rousseau, for example,described it as "an exercise that would man healthy and strong and wise and discreet." Only resort to it characters such as jesters or harlequins.Also some aristocrats continued exercising. Christianity,so hostile to the naked body did nothing to make or set the physical exercises.True Fitness was defended by the philosophers reformers Luther, Zwingli,Melanchthon and Roussene.It was just a matter of time before the gym become a sport extremely popular in Europe.The history of gymnastics at a competitive level can be traced to the 1896 Olympics in Athens.The World Championships have a history of gymnastics in the 1903 international event held in Antwerp.
Gymnastics in its present form can be traced to Sweden.The history of gymnastics shows that Germany and Czechoslovakia developed gymnastics apparatus around 1800.
Teaching originated when Friedrich Jahn (Professor of the Institute German in Berlin), a German educator was known as the father of gymnastics,created in 1811 using equipment of stationery to impress and develop self-discipline and strength of body.
A first space for the practice of gymnastics outdoors. Much of the current devices derive from their designs.At present, gymnastics often labeled as the combination perfect art and sport,but the idea is not new.Plato,Aristotle and Homer defended the invigorating qualities of gymnastics.The Swedish way on the other hand, developed by Pehr Henrik Ling, is rhythmic gymnastics.Focused on rhythm and coordinating the use of hoops, clubs and small balls.The term, gymnastics, emerged in the early nineteenth century to distinguish it from techniques used by the Army.While many consider them a novelty, to1880 he began to hold gymnastic competitions in schools,clubs athletic and cultural organizations throughout Europe.When resurrected the spirit Olympic Athens 1896,gymnastics made a triumphant return.In those early Olympics,gymnasts faced five countries competitions horizontal bar,parallel bars,pommel horse,rings and horse jumps.Germany,a key country in the development of gymnastics equipment,won almost all the medals.
However, the first Olympics gymnastic disciplines that had not might call "art." The ascent of rope,tumbling or rolling sticks were among the subjects who succumbed to the process of refinement.In the first World Championship, held in Antwerp in 1903,competitions as the pole vault or leap made their appearance.In the championships of 1922 There was a swimming competition.
The Olympic program began to take shape in 1924,with an individual competition and another team in all devices, which are faced by gymnasts the medals.Four years later,The first women began competing in Amsterdam Olympic Games 1928.
In 1952,Russia had become the power of Olympic gymnastics,whose popularity had grown after the creation of the Russian Gymnastics Federation in 1883 by a group of social reformers,including which was the playwright Anton Chekhov.Gymnastics in the modern Olympics From Athens 1896 to London 1948 The athletic and gymnastic part formed a group together.Competition of Gymnastics is divided into one part athletic and part of gymnastics.The part athletic consisted,among other tests,career of 100 m,high jump and pole,climb up the rope and balance exercises.In the gymnastics are performing all devices least the ground. There and team competition.In she could compete in parallel and horizontal bar in sync,they are teams eight gymnasts than the final score being the sum of the six best while the two worst only served in the respective individual scores.
In the competition of individual exercises needed exercise and electives and the minimum age to perform them was 18 years.
In 1928 the women began to participate in this mode at the Olympic Games.From Helsinki 1952 This stage marks the beginning of the era of rigorous gymnastics sports.It gymnastic tests outlined classic and current, disappearing completely all kinds of athletic events and appearing for the first time the teams made of 6 gymnasts.Chronology In 1776, the first modern gym teacher was Johann Friedrich Simon,Basedow's school in the German city of Dessau.
· In 1806 in Spain, the first official center which was performed at the Institute Real Pestalozzi, founded by Amoros in Madrid.
· In 1811, the educator Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, the father of modern gymnastics, founded in Berlin, the Turnverein, a gymnastic club.
· In 1888, gymnastics was taking root in some schools and founded the Amateur Gymnastics Association in 1888.
· In 1896 the discipline was included in the Olympics for participants male.
· In 1903 he first made the World Championships for males.
· In 1928 the women's competition was added for the first time.
· In 1934, women held the first world championships.
· In 1975, marks the first World Cup.
Disciplines The modern gym, regulated by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique or FIG consists of five disciplines. The rhythmic and artistic disciplines are the most known to be part of the Summer Olympic Games. Mode trampoline is part of the Olympic Games from Sydney Olympics 2000.
General Gymnastics is a discipline that involve people of all ages groups from 6 to 150 gymnasts perform choreographed way synchronized. Groups can be single gender or mixed.
The artistic gymnastics is one that by using body movements head, arms and legs creates a way to express themselves with music and even a companion and apparatus,consists of different types according to categories male and female.
Four of the art fitness equipment:
balance beam, horizontal bar, floor and bars asymmetric.
The artistic gymnastics is a form of gymnastics which consists in performing a choreographic composition, combining simultaneously and at high speed, body movements. The characteristics This sport requires a gymnast exceptional physical conditions.Is an Olympic sport in which women and men compete separately in different apparatus.Modalities The official gymnastics competitions usually have three modes both in the men as in women:
· Competition open individual
· Individual apparatus finals
· Team Event In the overall individual competition,each gymnast competes in all units to crown the individual champion.
Participate in the final top 24 gymnasts scores in the qualifying round. The final score for each gymnast is obtained adding the score achieved in each unit.
In individual apparatus finals, defined the best athlete in each apparatus.In this competition, involving the eight highest scoring gymnasts in each unit, during the qualifying round.
In the team competition,involving eight teams with better scores during the qualification round.
Apparatus Women's gymnastics
· Uneven Bars.
· Balance beam.
Men's Artistic Gymnastics
· Pommel Horse.
· Horizontal Bar.
Rhythmic gymnastics is a discipline that combines elements of ballet, gymnastics, dance and the use of various devices such as rope, hoop, ball, the clubs and ribbon. In this sport competitions take place both as exhibits where the gym is accompanied by music to keep pace in their movements.
We can distinguish two types: individual and sets. A when scoring is done on a maximum of thirty points.
Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport that combines elements of ballet, gymnastics, dance and the use of various devices such as rope, hoop, ball, clubs and ribbon.
In sport competitions take place both as exhibits in the gym is accompanied by music to keep a rhythm in their movements.
Can be of two forms: individual and sets.
History of gymnastics:
The rhythmic gymnastics as a sport emerged in the decade of the 30 in the Union Soviet Socialist Republic.This game created exclusively for women, has its historical background in movement and gymnastic systems with various systems arise in the eighteenth century in Western Europe.
The modern rhythmic gymnastics was developed in the late 1950's.
In 1963, in Budapest was organized the first International Gymnastics Tournament Rhythmic. A year later the Budapest International Tournament was officially declared the first Rhythmic Gymnastics World Championships.
The first world champion in rhythmic gymnastics was Ludmila Savinkova of the Soviet Union.
In 1975 was formed the Technical Committee of Gymnastics.
In 1983 instituted the World Cup Rhythmic Gymnastics.
In 1984 became part of the Olympic Games in Los Angeles who won the Canadian Lori Fung, becoming the first Olympic champion in history of rhythmic gymnastics in the individual category.
The form of joint was admitted to the Olympic Games in Atlanta in 1996, the first set for Spain.
From this first appearance, its reception by the public in the program Olympic is evident in the fact that tickets to watch their contests have always been among the first to run out.
At present, Bulgaria, Italy, Belarus and Russia are at the top of the world rankings. Today, gymnastics is one of the sports practiced among girls and adolescents. Apparatus Rope
Material: hemp or any other synthetic material.
Length: according to the height of the gymnast, this is measured from the tip foot to the shoulders, folded in half.Extremes has knots like a mango. The ends (not elsewhere in the string) can be wrapped in a length of 10 cm as a decoration.
Form: everywhere the same diameter or narrower at the center.
Execution: Figures techniques can be made with a taut rope or loose, with one or both hands, with or without change of hands.The relationship between the implement and the gymnast is more intense than in other cases.The rope often appears as a striking snake holding around of the gymnast.But flexibility and agility, with a touch of elegance, always win in the end.
Movements: turns, bumps, jumps, launching ...
Corporal Group Required: jumps and spins. Each time the rope touches the ground will be penalized. Today we discuss the possibility that the rope disappears competition program as it is considered to be the apparatus that has evolved in handling least along the recent years.
However, still preserved in the junior program in sets mode, so its ultimate demise is unclear. Ring The gymnast Anna Bessonova during an exercise hoop.
Material: wood or plastic (to be rigid, of a material not double).
Diameter: 80 cm to 90 cm inside. ? Weight: at least 300 g.
Form: the ring may be smooth or rough. It may be wrapped (in whole or partially) with a colored tape.
Execution: the hoop defines a space.This space is used to maximum the gymnast, who moves within the circle formed.Execution hoop requires frequent changes of motion, and the main requirement is good coordination of movements.
Movements: launching, moving,
Corporal Group Required: four types are used equally,
these are: flexibilities and waves, jumps, balances and twists. The ring must reach the waist of the gymnast.
Ball Material: rubber or plastic.
Diameter: 18 to 20 cm. ? Weight: at least 400 g.
Execution: the ball is the only implement in which to grip force is not accepted. This means that it requires a more soft and delicate between the body and attachment. The movements of the ball are in perfect harmony with the body. The ball must not be still on the floor, must be rolling, twisting, etc.. on this slip. Spectacular throws with control and precision in the receptions are dynamic elements.
Movements: bounces, spins, figure-8 shapes, pitches, reception with arms, legs, etc.., bearings directed and undirected, gigantic, retention, landslides
Releases: The release of the ball is a sequence of pulses coming from the legs, through a slight flexion of the entire body down to the fingertips. The body and arms extend toward the direction of the throw. Receiving the ball should be no noise, thus cushioning, with an extension arms toward the ball, ending the movement along the line leads, linking with another element or finishing exercise.
Boat: boat for exercises, the hand must conform to the shape of the ball, the wrist should be fixed, arm and knees accompanied the movement of the ball with one leg flexion and extension. In the time the boat will accompany the ball with your hand until it comes hand. The reception is to be silent, following the line of movement. There are boats to one or two hands, side or front depending on the movement or to accompany exercise
Bearings: The bearings are characteristic of the ball: it can do on the ground or in the gymnast's body (arms, trunk, legs). The bearings are initiated with a side arm and hand. During the tour, the ball has to stay in touch with the bearing surface of the gymnast or the ground, and at the end due to be received with a body part.
Rotations: The rotation can be performed on the floor or on the gymnast's body, so that the ball to rotate around its axis after transmitting a pulse with the hand, the end of the rotating the ball must land somewhere in the body of the gymnast.
Swings: The ball, as the element name indicates, must be smooth and naturally balanced, with a relaxed hand, without taking the ball.
Movements in Eight: As the name says, it should move the ball with figure-eight, the gymnast must have a relaxed hand, never take the ball. Are much needed in this element, the amplitude and elegance of movement. ? Circonducciones: As in the previous two cases, the hand must be completely distensa and landed the ball on it. The movement of the ball this time is circular. Both this element as the two just mentioned can be made to one or two hands. ? Corporal Group Required: waves and flexibilities and jumps. Clubs ? Material: Plastic, rubber, wood. ? Length: 8 to 5 dm from one extreme to another. ? Weight: at least 150 grams per club. ? Parties: ? Body: protruding part. ? Neck: thin part. ? Head: spherical part. ? Execution: the gymnast uses the clubs to run winches, spins, throws and many asymmetric figures as possible, combining them with the many figures used in the gymnastics without attachments. When you hit the clubs, not hard to do. The exercises with clubs require a highly developed sense of rhythm, maximum coordination psychomotor and accuracy. The clubs are especially appropriate for ambidextrous gymnasts. ? Movements: throws with two or one, pinwheels, shock, retention, sliding ... ? Corporal Group Mandatory balances and turns. Tape ? Material: satin or a non-starched. Has a rod called stylet, which can be wood, bamboo, plastics or fiberglass. ? Width: 4 cm to 6 cm. ? Length: up to 6 m. ? Weight: at least 35 g (without the stylus or the union). ? Execution: the tape is long and bright and can be pulled in all directions. Its function is to create designs in space. Flights in the air create images and shapes of all kinds. Figures various sizes are executed in various rhythms. ? Movements: spiral, zigzag, giant, launching ... ? Corporal Group Required: turns and jumps. The end of the tape has to keep moving throughout the implementation exercise, without touching the ground accidentally. Basis of Rhythmic Gymnastics This sport can be practiced individually, in sets of 5 gymnasts in 4 gymnasts sets of 3 gymnasts or even in pairs. As for the joint exercises we can say that its duration should be 2 ½ minutes, greater than that of an individual is 1 ½ minutes. The Gymnasts may take 5 units equal to 3 with a single device and 2 different one. Originally they were 6 gymnasts, but on the 80 could be even 8. Technical peculiarities ? Introduction to relaxation postures. ? Smoothness of exercise and continuity of action. ? Participation of large muscle areas. ? Perfection of the movements. ? Execution rate as a musical theme. ? Frequent travel. ? Inclusion of each year in the set. ? Scoring system The final grade for the year are derived from the sum of the ratings of difficulty, artistic and execution, each with a maximum of 10 points. They are also penalized subtracting points to the final grade, certain errors committed by the gymnast.  The difficulty rating is based on technical merit assembly. This is divided into: difficulty and difficulty apparatus body. The physical difficulties are four: jumps, flexibilities and waves, twists and balances. The compulsory use of each of they depend upon the apparatus being used. The difficulty rating of device taken into account mastery with or without release, the risk elements preacrobáticos and originality of device. The artistic note shall, as its name suggests, the artistic value of assembly. It will consider the use of music, choreography used, the use around the area, the range of motion of the gymnast and the range of this instrument. The note will assess the correctness of execution in every musical level elements of body technique and technique with the apparatus. The performance assessment is based on a perfect model of realization of an element or movement, the gymnast or Gymnasts must be developed. The model errors with respect to accumulate and adding, that the end is subtracted from the starting value (10 represents an execution Like the perfect role model, without any error). Penalties ? It penalizes the departure of two feet outside the area defined for the execution (called practicable or carpet). The same applies if the attachment is that leaves the area. ? The implement must keep moving. ? The scheme must end at the exact moment when the music ends which was accompanied with the implementation. ? The degree of difficulty should be presented in the attachment, or in the movements of the gymnast, but you should always exist. ? No rhythmic steps within the mat. ? Use your hands on some things that are not allowed. Controversy For a long time elite gymnastics has been surrounded by controversy by anorexia that some gymnasts have suffered and the demanding discipline. In Spain, after the Olympics in 1996, one of the gymnasts from the category of sets, Maria Pardo, accused the then coach of imposing Emilia Boneva harsh discipline. Just over a year later, another team gymnasts, Tania Lamarca, was excluded from it by even more than 2.7 kilos weight demanded, as in his book Tears for a medal. Since then many Team gymnasts have been expelled from it for similar reasons although the controversy has not been as high in the absence of complaints pathways involved. In other complaints countries have been and are much more frequent.
Rhythmic gymnasts celebrated
Carmen Acedo (1975, Spain)
Yana Batyrchina (1979, Russia)
Anna Bessonova (1984, Ukraine)
Cháshchina Irina (1982, Russia)
Almudena Cid (1980, Spain)
Estela Giménez (1979, Spain)
Godunko Natalia (1984, Ukraine)
Alina Kabáyeva (1983, Russia)
Evgenia Kanaïeva (1990, Russia)
Oksana Kostina (1972, USSR)
Natalia Lavrova (1984, Russia)
Marina Lobach (1970, USSR)
Carolina Pascual (1976, Spain)
Maria Petrova (1975, Bulgaria)
Serebrianskaya Ekaterina (1977, Ukraine)
Elena Vitrichenko (1976, Ukraine)
The aerobics, formerly known as aerobic sports, is a discipline of gymnastics in which executes a routine of between 100 and 110 devices with movements high intensity derived from traditional aerobics and a series of stunts difficulty. This routine must demonstrate different devices. The aerobics, formerly known as Sport Aerobics is a discipline of gymnastics in which executes a routine 100 to 110 units with high-intensity movements derivatives besides a traditional aerobic series of acrobatic difficulty. This routine should demonstrate different devices Categories There are five categories in aerobics:
· Single women
· Single Male (Perimeter of 7x7m)
· Mixed couples Male and female
· Threesomes Men, women or mixed
· Groups (6 members) Men, women or mixed (Perimeter of 10x10m) For each category (more than two members) there is a rules about the lifts, the interactions and spatial distribution. The code of the International Gymnastics Federation changed every 3 years and many parts of the regulation, such as the case of space, time or items that are evaluated in the routine varies. Score The exercise will be scored according to three factors: Artistic It assesses:
· The choreography based on the composition of aerobic movements and the transition including integration with elements of difficulty and figures. · The use of music in the choreography.
· Combinations of aerobic steps and arm movements.
· The use space well distributed.
· The presentation and fellowship.
Execution It assesses:
· The ability to execute movements with maximum precision
· The rate, ie the realization of the movements in line with the music, and synchronization, which is the ability of gymnasts to both movements.
· The showmanship.
· The complexity of the movements. Difficulty Assesses the difficulty elements performed during the routine.
. The maximum in the category of seniors is 12 items.This category can be performed at least 1 element for each family, and with a minimum value of 0.3
· The area of difficulty is divided into 4 families: or Family A (dynamic force) or Family B (static force) and Family C (jumps) or Family D (flexibility and balance) Each element has a value, from 0.1 to 1 point.
For example: Wenson push up has a value of 0.3. Penalties Penalties are applied in certain cases, for example to leave the track, not last the year regular time, and so on. Among the penalties are also those relating to clothing inappropriate, for example, men can not wear long sleeves in her wardrobe the type of cloth can not be of naked transparencies can not be used or aditamentes locker room with extras like feathers, or excessive hair ornaments or loose.
Acrobatic gymnastics also known as acro-sport, is a group discipline where there are patterns of male partner, female partner, mixed couple, male female trio and quartet. Rallies collective gymnastics where the body acts as a motor unit, driver support and other bodies. Or Acrosport Acrobatic Gymnastics
The word comes from the Greek acrobat Akrobatos it means to walk on toes, a person who makes or trapeze skills on ropes. In popular slang, is recognized as an acrobat to that person, which dominates the perfectly different and complicated exercise of circus art. The exercises are called the system itself acrobatic stunt or acrobatics. Currently it is difficult to determine when these exercises came through the study cultures and / or monuments of antiquity, archaeological and Chronicles of ancient historians, philosophers and poets, one can imagine emergence and development of such acrobatics emerged in the old for over 4,000 years. Archaeological discoveries as vases, paintings and reliefs that tell us acrobatics and dances were held in the ancient Egyptian 2.500 years BC, concluding that they already knew different "hand stand", "bridges" and other stunts performed individually and in pairs. The first data from them were found in mortuary monuments in Egypt Xason Ben-applied in the preparation warrior. During this time of acrobatic exercises occupied a special place in parties and ceremonies, one of the chronic IV century in one of the festivals, Acrobatic exercises were demonstrated by professional acrobats and reads: "In visits presented a group of dancers performing different jumps which jumping over one another with incredible rapidity, one climbs on top of the head the other, forming pyramids reaching to the ceiling then jump into one after another floor and immediately execute new jumps with perfect mastery, movement constant dance of hands rise with the help of the couple do somersaults in the air, its balances and stunts that produce fast-moving astonishment divirtiéndolos greatly among the guests. Currently rocks are retained drawn from archaeological excavations, demonstrating these exercises acrobatic and were known in southern Sweden (2.000 BC) in a detail of rock embedding in a boat is a mortal with the body extended (position "A"). In many acrobatic exercise data were found in excavations archaeological talk about the Etruscans, who inhabited the central part of the Apennine peninsula (Italy) in the first century of our era, countless figures on bronze depicting men performing acrobatics, bridges, braces invested, and other mortals. Archaeological excavations in Greece say that the ancient Greeks knew the acrobatics: a Greek vase illustrated with drawings, is that they knew the exercise such as jumping feet and back down to being executed on daggers tarnish buried in the ground and above the sheet surface can be say that this was the ancient ancestor of today flic-flac (hand spring back). Games were very popular with bulls, who were on different jumps acrobatic spread quickly to other nations still many years. A late nineteenth century excavations of tombs Spartan, were found two golden bowls with engraved figures of acrobats performing exercises on bulls spring running hands, taking the horns of the beast in the race, exercise Similar were found in one of the gray walls of the palace (1450 - 1400). In the mountains of the Pyrenees and now in Pamplona, Spain can be remains of those festivities with bulls and acrobats even cites Homer in the Odyssey Iliad and acrobatic leaps that are exercised by professional artists, in one of the Songs of the Odyssey speaks of those present were distracted by two acrobats who attracted attention with his lyre synchronized jumps very agile. In gymnastics ancient Rome was not demonstrated in the circus but in the streets, this looks in the engravings on the walls of the palaces of ancient Pompeii buried by Vesuvius (79 years BC). During the feudal period (fourth to the thirteenth century) in Europe significantly increases the interest in circus activities, but were very pursued and stopped the stunt artists who nonetheless continued to spread their expertise in the streets. In the Renaissance the arts, sciences and literature, reach a great development, this | * impact on the advancement of acrobatics. In Venice there is a competition called "contest Arquitectura Viva", which consisted in the development of acrobatic pyramids and the prize was for the highest pyramid. In one of the Francesco Guardi paintings) main painting in the gallery of the Louvre Museum D'Paris), the height of the pyramids reaches approximately 9 meters participation taking 30 people, by the daily struggle every day to earn bread arises circus acrobatics, trampoline exercises. The inventor of the cot Elastic was the French circus acrobat "Don Trampoline." interest arises between teachers of the time towards Physical Education as a means of developing and education of the rising generation. Related to this are the first books specifically geared to acrobatics. The first book contains some data on the use of acrobatic exercises in Physical Education. Appears at the end of the sixteenth century "for the Gymnastic Art" of Mercurialis Geronimus, medical Venetian its most notable success reached by the Italian Angelo Tucaro (1538 - 1616) "Three Dialogues for Volt Jumping exercises" for the first time in history of gymnastics is written and outlines 85 acrobatics. Although an early technique introduces the seatbelt to prevent trauma different nature, emphasizes the importance of warming at the start of practice and especially exercise recovery at the end thereof. In the middle of the eighteenth century saw the first modern circus where acrobatics is decisive and inseparable part of comedy circus. The emergence of national gymnastic systems (Swedish, French and German) XVIII or XIX century thus making acrobatics three directions.
1. Modus Vivendi (living) children of the street.
2. To the circus.
3. As a means of Physical Education and Sports.
In the twentieth century acrobatics develops rapidly, adding to it as a competitive activity outstanding as a novelty exercises on the trampoline and for the first time in the U.S. in 1926. They are considered pioneers of this new sport to Americans L. Cridsvaldy and George Nissen. The latter built the trampoline in 1918 and in 1936 organized massive construction of this device. The acrobatics on the trampoline were included in the physical education program in high schools and programs universities and later in the United States Navy. Right here in 1948 held the first National Student Championship. Competition from trampoline was included in the programs of the second Pan American Games in Mexico, 1955. CONCEPT Collective gymnastics events where the body acts as the motor apparatus of driver support and other bodies. Phenomenon giving rise to a new and recent discipline, character competitive and that can occupy an important place in schools, with purpose competitive qualifying training regulations.
INSTALLATION, EQUIPMENT AND REGULATION:
The Acrosport discipline is included along with other sports acrobatic IFSA - International Federation of Sports Acrobatic - founded in 1973 Integrating activity (Mace, 1995) three key elements: -The construction of figures that require strength, flexibility, propulsion and balance. Acrobatics in soil-like transitions of some other figures. -The music, which supports the choreographic component. Another branch of Gymnastics, with its own characteristics, widely practiced in our country even by teachers who do not know they teach. There are many teachers unable to have all the appliances of art, teach only ground, then compete always at the same level, without being able go beyond a lack of materials. Acrobatics is tumbling, trampoline, double mini tramp, and acro sport. The gymnast can choose to compete only in one unit, two, three, or all. That is if you want to compete solely on the ground! Acrobatic why is the sport that respects the physical participants, as a student who does not have conditions for a device, you can focus entirely to another and get this at a high level. Therefore, allowing greater participation of students with different somatotype, and a major sporting life of their gymnasts. METHODS Acrosport: It is a discipline that is practiced in a Pedana of 12 m. x 12 m. in the carried out series 2'15 "to 2'30 duos and" trios or quartets to a maximum with musical accompaniment, forming towers and turrets dynamic equilibrium, individual elements, gymnastic leaps and turns and acrobatic different series. It competes in mixed duos, duos female, male duets, trios and female male quartets. Performed three different series. A series elements is equilibrium, one is dynamic elements and the latter is combined. All required routines and individual array elements to be distributed in the execution of the scheme.
Categories Junior - 12 to 18 years Senior - 14 and older In all cases the basic gymnast may not be less than 12 years.
Tumbling: An individual discipline in which to perform a succession of high-speed acrobatics. It competes in a slide of 25 m. long in the rely only feet and hands.
Categories Developed Promotional Level:
Level Up to 10 years 11 to 12 years 13 to 14 years 15 onwards 12 years 13 to 14 years 15 to 16 years 17 onwards
It is a discipline that is practiced in an element of 5 m. x 3 m. approximately 1.10 m. in height, consisting of a metallic structure maintains a mesh by springs, which performs a series of exercises of high and difficulty. We compete individually or in pairs synchronized two separate elements. Categories Developed Promotional Level Level Up to 10 years 11 to 12 years 13 to 14 years 15 onwards 12 years 13 to 14 years 15 to 16 years 17 onwards Double mini-tramp: It is a discipline that is practiced in an elastic element trampoline-like structure of 3 m. long and 0.70 m. high approximately accessed after a race and on which there are two great exercises difficulty, finishing second on a bed of fall. Mini-Tramp: a element similar to double mini-tramp, but smaller which competes with a just jump that culminates in a mattress. Not compete in international form, but in our country and only promotional level. Categories Developed Promotional Level Level Up to 10 years 11 to 12 years 13 to 14 years 15 onwards 12 years 13 to 14 years 15 to 16 years 17 onwards DIMENSIONS ACROBATIC EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY II. Elements of a didactics of acrobatics Strehly beyond the description of the techniques as they appear in the show, is in the perspective of the teacher to address some of the Aspects of the learning process and skills training acrobatic. 1. Technical descriptions, stages and progressions for learning The detail of the technical indications acquires a distinctly didactic From the description of the phases and in some cases desirable stage for learning. Thus, for the balance invested a clear distinction in three phases-the ascent and descent maintenance-in each of which develops a study of specific difficulties, postural corrections and variations. Furthermore, as to the precise alignment body for balancing on the hands, Strehly affects the vertical well done balance necessarily involves arms, shoulders and knees. It should be recalled in this connection, that the model technical prevailing at the time, the trunk is kept fully arched and only in the case of the so called right balance, considered a variant exceptional hip aligned with the other points raised. Meanwhile, in a dynamic as the back flip identifies the following times or phases: ? The jumper from the standing position is lifted vertically by a bending knees. ? Once at the highest point combines the legs making the gesture of taking the knees with both hands while giving a header back (a gesture that is try to avoid using the technique and the prevailing teaching today). ? When you complete the turn to fall ungrouped legs standing on the ground. In relation to the back flip-Rigadoon-pairs, in addition to the description of movement are introduced facilitators of learning orientations: the catcher right leg forward and your hands together form a kind of bracket on cascador which supports the right foot. The catcher rises with a slight cock stroke the cascador who in turn drives the head back in order to achieve rotation in space. On the direction of the actions of each states the following: "Each of the performers have to be restricted to their powers: the catcher looking only the perpendicular rise of agile and it should have no more concern to give the time dependent evolution "(Strehly, G. ocp130) In the case of fatal carried on the shoulders in a column or pyramid, indications appear on the placement of the catcher in order to help agile in momentum and power balance in receiving the jump: "(...) The acrobatic catcher is always half bent knees, to make elastic springboard when cascador has to rise and restore balance when falls back. "(Strehly, G. o.c. p.139) For other investment jumps as "dove", put descriptions of manifesto which has been the sense of technical development and teaching to the extent certain advice of yesteryear, such as the accentuation of the lumbar-extension, but not all-as well conducting arms outstretched with, have become against advice or contraindications today: "It is done with arms outstretched and extending well back. Foot arrive almost simultaneously with the hands. "(Strehly, G. ocp 127) 2. Difficulties, errors and corrections Regarding the balance invested on hand, states that a main difficulty Strehly achieving technical stop upward movement in the right point, and which if prolonged more than necessary is exposed to the other side. As the deadly are various references to the mistakes and proposals to get the acquisition right gesture. The first and most important defect described is the tendency to turn before jumping, losing altitude and rotation and dragging the consequence of poor reception in both the position-grouped or knees instead of standing extended, as in the space in which it occurs - behind the starting point: "The fault of all beginners is to want to turn at first, and bending the legs, instead of rising perpendicularly and to require the rotation to blow to the head and arm swing. The consequence of this false start is the clustered or fall on their knees and far behind the starting point. "(Strehly, G. c p.116) Must take into account any variations in acrobatic is performed fatal in the context circus: on different surfaces static and dynamic inanimate and animate, to understand the emphasis on the need for perfection displacements at the reception about the takeoff point. In this regard, Strehly refers to the danger and impropriety of traveling back and the sides: "There are two flaws that prevent the back flip. The first is the fall further from the starting point. It is always a proof that the initial output has become more or goodness and that is rotated before rising. The second is the fall to right or left from the starting point. Is a sign that the whipping of the two feet, have not worked as both legs. You can not claim to perform well mortal until they turn completely over the place. "(Strehly, G. ocp117) As detailed as the descriptions of the technical errors are proposed improved solution and deadly. In this regard, divided into phases Strehly raises the learning, following the phases of the movement, focusing first on the vertical jump and only once assimilated this approach the turn until you master the two moments: "You learn to give first time vertical jump without seeking the money to fight said trend. When you have mastered the first time, try the second. The third is the easiest to get because you ungroup legs instinctively at the time when the pull is felt towards the ground. Which performs well first half but the second gives insufficiently exposed to fall on the neck. " (Strehly, G. o.c. p.117) In the case of back flip over the horse's difficulty increases as the reception that must move forward to keep the horse's back below progress (Strehly, G. o.c. p. 298). As for the deadly casse-cou or hereinafter hits its lower risk and greater technical difficulty in respect of back flip in the ground: "Despite the name, is less dangerous than before. However, run from standing is more difficult to do it right back and leaves the eye public an impression less satisfactory. "(...)" There is that, while making the stop, catch your knees and make a forceful bending head ahead. "(Strehly, G. o.c. p.119) Warnings about the danger are specifically about the flying trapeze in the description of the different positions of catcher invested in acrobatics Horses in the pyramids, where describes the physical ills of the portores as result from rubbing your feet on the desk of mortals, and also appear in the bar about the mill: "The serious danger which offers is that at the time which has passed the point dead when the body begins to pick up, under the centrifugal force occurs on the hands that hold the device a pressure equivalent to four and a half times the body weight (...). This fearsome pressure, does not last is true, rather than a very short time, if it continues any gymnast could hold. But little weaken the hands or the back sweat sliding occurs invincible tendency to release the device "(Strehly, G. ocp 216) 3. Aid manuals and materials In a strongly didactic sense, refers Strehly aid manuals and materials, such as issues of great relevance in practice acrobatic stressing the various details concerning their use. Aid manuals. The manual aids are used mainly in education of mortals, as its name in Castilian and French-périlleux-indica, carries a warning of real danger "Be careful when repeating this motion be made to hold the waist by an assistant and not risk to be perfectly safe. "(Strehly, G. o.c. p.116) In the teaching of back flip Strehly identifies two types of support, a support and another boost to help complete the turn: "There is, therefore, help to stop receiving this jump until after many successful attempts. Even should get help for a while à la claque, ie, a pulse helping hand and ensures the movement of rotation. " Another type of close support group is made up of manual notices that transmitted by movements within the pyramids. Thus, the notice of initiation the jump is performed by first moving catcher with a shoulder that is transmitted throughout the column in order to synchronize. Materials and driving safety Among the mentioned props along the work, we distinguish between the group of security equipment and materials group that help increase the momentum of the unique stunt jumps. Moreover, also references are made to materials that facilitate the execution or lessen the inconvenience in practice, as is the case of the pad are placed on portores head to head-head balance (Strehly, G. ocp 94) or to hold any object or also the hooks in the boot to the trapeze to increase Figure aesthetics and reduce direct friction with the bar. In terms of safety materials, greatly highlighted belts, which are described as essential educational elements in the pyramids, which is usually combined with the pulley and precedes the help manual: "When you are absolutely sure of their movement made a thousand times, give up the guarantee of the rope. The assistant stands to the side to watch in the case of a bad fall. "(Strehly, G. o.c. p. 141) But the rope has been used since the pooled back flip on the floor: "To repeat the somersault is often tied at the waist by a rope two assistant support from both sides. " In a similar manner using the belt pulley on acrobatics horses, when the beginner has more support domain is reduced to a belt pulley rope without, only to prevent falls eccentric, off the track, which are those considered really dangerous. "(...) When the beginner has more support domain is reduced to a belt without pulley rope, just to avoid eccentric-falls off the track, which is really dangerous " You could also consider safety materials, resin and hand guards - hooked leather triangle in the middle and ring fingers to support the touch-that oversee the integrity of the hands and the body of preventing the barrista escape and to spring: a minimum amount of resin to prevent escape but can turn on the bar. The resin is applied in the horse's back when not in use chair or platform. With respect to the trampolines, are associated with the tumbling of soil, although also appear in the stunt horses for the jump of the input. In any case we must distinguish two types of trampoline, the length and small: The small diving board 0.60 m long by 0.40 high somersaults that facilitates simple: "the deadly springboard forward movement becomes a very accessible. " The trampoline long track is a kind of acrobatic tilt in the batoude4 ends called, a kind of road plates 20 meters that part of the height of a floor and that reaches the height from the ground and relieved abruptly about 45 ° with an elastic rod in the end. On this trampoline acrobatic possibilities multiplied, reaching double-and triple fatal falling on a cushion of a meter thick. ORGANIZATION OF SPORTS EVENTS Collective tables are made with significant mass which subsequently would take certain names as the "Sokol" and "Turner" (concentrations nationalists) The "spartaquiadas" or "gymnastradas" which are currently still boom as an exponent of the various systems as a source of education gymnastic Physics. From the 70's, the figure of the "cheerleader" sports entertainers schools and colleges United States have included the construction of pyramids human routines. In the 80's, French authors propose different Acrogym or gymnastics into groups by human constructions as another important way to address gymnastic activity in physical education. Gymnastics springboard Gymnastics trampoline is to perform a series of exercises performed in several elastic devices, where acrobatics is the main protagonist. Trampoline competitions are very colorful and very attracted to the spectacular movements. They are individual and team tests. The exercises judges score the difficulty of valuing the rotating elements and turns, and the execution thereof. HISTORY OF TRAMPOLINE GYMNASTICS First were the frames of wooden canoes and whalebone, skins sea lions and waterproof coating them with blubber. That invention of the Eskimos finished evolving in the modern Olympic sport canoeing. Now comes his second contribution to the Olympic Games, but with a delay of centuries. This time is the walrus skin. When the trampoline debuts in Sydney 2000 as the new gymnastic discipline, we will be celebrating defying acts gravity were discovered centuries ago the Eskimos. At that time the English had begun tossing volunteers, but the use of walrus skins by Eskimos for the same game seems to have been the origin of the idea of the trampoline. Evidence suggests that Comanches in North America used a kind of springboard to mid- nineteenth century, and circus acrobats and similar devices used to springboard 200 years ago. According to folkclore circus, the modern trampoline springs are developed in the circus thanks to an acrobat named Du Trampoline. It seems he saw the possibility of use a safety net trapezoid as a method of propulsion and landing. Experimented with different suspension systems, and finally reduced network to a practical size so it can be used separately. In the late nineteenth century, main acrobats and executed deadly double and triple rows of horses on elephants. Early in the decade of the 30 United States, a man named George Nissen came out of his garage with a prototype of what is now the springboard. It used to practice their jumps and spins until it occurred to him that he could entertain audiences and allow you to participate in its exhibitions. Had emerged a new form leisure. Although the use of the trampoline acquired some importance and seriousness (first during the Second World War to help U.S. pilots and navigators to gain some sense of direction, and later for American astronauts and Soviets to adapt to different positions in space), continued to develop as a sport. The first competitions were organized by institutes and American universities, but Europe was not far behind. The Swiss Kurt Baechler Ted Blake and the British were the European pioneers of the sport, being Britain the first country to televise a national championship as a springboard for 1958. Six years later, London hosted the first World Championship. Per annum next International Trampoline Federation had already been recognized outside London and the trampoline became a serious sport. The first championship Europe was held in Paris in 1969 and since then has been held alternately with the World Championship. The United States dominated the World Championship at first, but their progress was slowed by legal problems. Although most countries began to practice the trampoline at the same time, major European countries began to dominate the trampoline in the 50 and 60. Russia has become the main power of the sport. Britain and Germany are the main rival of Russia in the Olympics Sydney 2000. The British tend to share the top position with the Russians, and have gone on to win four World Championships. Trampoline Gymnastics joined the International Federation of Gymnastics 1998, and acquired its official character by participating in past Olympics Sydney 2000. This mode consists of three disciplines: Trampoline (cot elastic). Tumbling (track acrobatic of 8 meters in length). Double mini trampoline. It is characterized by performing deadly with or without rotation, to the maximum height and continuity without repeating elements most prominent gymnasts come to acquire a ture of up to 7 meters. In each element of the 10 that have to run on a routine springboard, which is the only one of the disciplines compete in Olympics. In Mexico began the practice of this modality in the year 1999. Taking the first participation in an international event (World Series Edmonton and Greensboro) in August 2002. Children may begin this sport 6 years of age, being a form with a long sporting life: the current Olympic and world champion Alexander Moskalenko has 37 years of age. The trampoline is also used as auxiliary equipment and Gymnastics Diving for learning acrobatic elements as it facilitates the athlete to sit more in time and space, developing the system vestibular. Gymnastics at Pan American Games The artistic gymnastics is part of the official program of sports since I Edition held in Buenos Aires in 1951. Rhythmic Gymnastics It was the mid-twentieth century when the International Gymnastics Federation (FIG) first became interested in gymnastics, then known as "modern gymnastics". However, the history of rhythmic gymnastics began the nineteenth century. From 1800, rhythmic gymnastics was practiced mainly in group and included some elementary notions of choreography. In 1930, appeared the first competitions in Eastern Europe. Long before the FIG declared his interest, the intricate floor exercises, typical of the gymnastics, had already conquered a large number of gymnasts female. Rhythmic gymnastics, comparable to classical ballet, inspired by many jumps and movements, requires a certain elegance to the execution exercises. However, it has its roots in the German system, which focuses on devices that work the muscles and exercises free Swedish system, which add a sense of rhythm. Rhythmic gymnastics was official FIG discipline since 1962. A year Later, he organized the first tournament in Budapest international later became the first official world championship rhythmic gymnastics. The Soviet Ludmila Savinkova won the first title global competition of 28 gymnasts from 10 countries Europeans. As the world took interest in this discipline, the number of participants increased by leaps and bounds. The Americans made their World Cup appearance in 1973. Gradually, rhythmic gymnastics began to move away from the shadow of the artistic gymnastics. Rhythmic gymnastics is part of the competitive game Pan American from 1991 in the Sports Games XI Pan Havana 1991. The trampoline is part of the competitive game Pan American from 2003 to the XIV Pan American Games in Santo